Legal Definition of Bar Code

Example of a stacked barcode. More precisely, a barcode « codablock ». While it may seem difficult at first glance to claim that using a barcode would lead to confusion, the purpose of a barcode is to identify a product and its supply chain. Therefore, as retailers move to fully automated processes and online products are identified solely by their barcodes, it is likely that the strength of this argument and the likelihood of confusion will only increase. A matrix code, also known as a 2D barcode or simply a 2D code, is a two-dimensional way of representing information. It is similar to a linear barcode (1 dimension), but can display more data per unit area. A barcode is « a series of rectangular markers and spaces in a planned pattern. » [1] MaxiCode example. This encodes the string « Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia » High-capacity color barcode URL of Wikipedia article on high-capacity color barcodes Barcode readers are relatively inexpensive and extremely accurate compared to key entry, with only about 1 replacement error in 15,000 to 36 trillion characters entered. [38] [unreliable source?] The exact error rate depends on the type of barcode.

In 1971, an IBM team was assembled for an intensive planning session that spent 12 to 18 hours a day determining how the technology would be deployed and operated consistently across the system, and planning a deployment plan. In 1973, the team met with food manufacturers to introduce the symbol that had to be printed on the packaging or labels of all their products. There were no cost savings for a grocery store unless at least 70% of food products had the barcode printed on the product by the manufacturer. IBM estimated that 75% would be needed in 1975. Although this was achieved, there were still scanners in fewer than 200 grocery stores in 1977. [15] Barcodes are widely used in many contexts around the world. In stores, UPC barcodes are printed on most items other than fresh produce from a grocery store. [ref. needed] This speeds up checkout processing and helps track items and also reduces shoplifting cases with price tag exchange, although shoplifters can now print their own barcodes. [19] Barcodes encoding a book`s ISBN are also often pre-printed on books, magazines and other printed materials.

In addition, retail chain membership cards use barcodes to identify customers, allowing for personalized marketing and a better understanding of consumers` individual buying behavior. At the point of sale, buyers can receive product discounts or special marketing offers via the address or email address provided during registration. On October 20, 1949, Woodland and Silver filed a patent application for « Classifying Apparatus and Method » describing both the linear and window printing patterns and the mechanical and electronic systems needed to read the code. The patent was granted on October 7, 1952 as U.S. Patent 2,612,994. Woodland joined IBM in 1951 and constantly tried to interest IBM in the development of the system.[1] The company eventually commissioned a report on the idea, concluding that it was both feasible and interesting, but that processing the resulting information would require equipment that was far into the future. In the TV series Dark Angel, the protagonist and the other transgenes of the Manticore X series have barcodes on their necks. It is a code that represents characters through sets of parallel bars of different thickness and separation, which are read optically by cross-scanning. The most common application of barcode technology is Universal Product Code (UPC), which has been used on consumer product labels for several decades.

Some symbologies use interlacing. The first character is encoded with black bars of different widths. The second character is then encoded by varying the width of the white space between these bars. Thus, the characters are encoded in pairs on the same section of the barcode. Interleaved 2 out of 5 is an example. « Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia » in multiple languages encoded in DataGlyphs The mapping between messages and barcodes is called symbology. The specification of a symbology includes the encoding of the message in bars and spaces, the required start and stop markers, the size of the silence zone that must be before and after the barcode, and the calculation of a checksum. Linear symbologies are optimized for laser scanners that scan a beam of light in a straight line over the barcode and read a slice of light-dark barcode patterns.

By scanning at an angle, the modules appear wider, but the width ratios are not changed. Stacked symbologies are also optimized for laser scanning, with the laser making multiple passes through the barcode. Barcodes are often thought of as a simple cost-saving technology that allows products to be scanned and sold efficiently, reducing time and costs. However, the reality is that they are much more. If a barcode is obtained from GS1, it is held under the terms of a licence. Therefore, the company using the barcode is not the owner of the barcode itself, but a licensee. The barcode may only be used in accordance with the license. In addition to tracking sales and inventory, barcodes are very useful in logistics and supply chain management.

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